Reciprocity, Commitment, and Employee Behavior During a Pandemic in the Hospitality Industry | Rianto | Tourism and Sustainable Development Review

Reciprocity, Commitment, and Employee Behavior During a Pandemic in the Hospitality Industry

Narendra Ikhwan Arif Rianto, E. S. Pusparini


The tourism industry in Indonesia is severely affected by the Covid-19 crisis. Employees who are still working during the pandemic have a high probability of termination of employment. In times of crisis, the role of superiors is vital for the sustainability of the company's operations. It creates commitment to companies in the Tourism Industry in difficult times so that employees do not behave counter-productively. This study aims to examine the effect of Job Insecurity (JI), Perceived Leader-Member Exchange (PLMX), Organizational Commitment (OC) on Job Search Behavior (JSB). This study used a Cross-Sectional Research design where the sample is working-employee in Hospitality Industry during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study collected 191 data, then, as a prerequisite, through a screening question, sorted 107 employees (56%) who were still working for more than one year in their company. This study analyzed data using the Partial Least Square (PLS) method to determine the relationship between the construct variables with a total of 51 question items. Results from this study show that a high level of job insecurity has a significantly negative effect, and a high level of perceived leader-member exchange has a significantly positive effect on organizational commitment. Moreover, It is a significant driver of job search behavior and mediates the effect of job insecurity and perceived leader-member exchange on job search behavior.


Perceived Leader-Member Exchange; Job Insecurity; Job Search Behavior; Organizational Commitment; COVID-19

Full Text:



Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1–18.

Audenaert, M., George, B., & Decramer, A. (2019). How a demanding employment relationship relates to affective commitment in public organizations: A multilevel analysis. Public Administration, 97(1), 11–27.

Bajrami, D. D., Terzić, A., Petrović, M. D., Radovanović, M., Tretiakova, T. N., & Hadoud, A. (2020). Will we have the same employees in hospitality after all? The impact of COVID-19 on employees’ work attitudes and turnover intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, June.

Banfi, S., Choi, S., & Villena-Roldan, B. (2019). Deconstructing Job Search Behavior. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Bernerth, J. B., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., Giles, W. F., & Walker, H. J. (2007). Leader–member social exchange (LMSX): development and validation of a scale. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(1), 979–1003.

Blau, G. (1994). Testing a Two-Dimensional Measure of Job Search Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 59(2), 288–312.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Justice in Social Exchange. Sociological Inquiry, 34(2), 193–206.

Borg, I., & Elizur, D. (1992). Job Insecurity: Correlates, Moderators and Measurement. International Journal of Manpower, 13(2), 13–26.

Budiyanti, E. (2020). Dampak Virus Corona Terhadap Sektor Perdagangan Dan Pariwisata Indonesia. Jurnal Kebijakan Kesehatan Indonesia, 09(98–106), 98.

Conway, N., & Briner, R. B. (2002). Full-time versus part-time employees: Understanding the links between work status, the psychological contract, and attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(2), 279–301.

Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2014). Business Research Methods 12th Edition. In Business Research Methods.

Dahling, J. J., Melloy, R., & Thompson, M. N. (2013). Financial strain and regional unemployment as barriers to job search self-efficacy: A test of social cognitive career theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(2), 210–218.

Dansereau, F., Seitz, S. R., Chiu, C., Shaughnessy, B., & Yammarino, F. J. (2013). What makes leadership , leadership ? Using self-expansion theory to integrate traditional and contemporary approaches. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(6), 798–821.

Davahli, M. R., Karwowski, W., Sonmez, S., & Apostolopoulos, Y. (2020). The hospitality industry in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic: Current topics and research methods. In International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Vol. 17, Issue 20, pp. 1–22).

De Cuyper, N., Notelaers, G., & De Witte, H. (2009). Job Insecurity and Employability in Fixed-Term Contractors, Agency Workers, and Permanent Workers: Associations With Job Satisfaction and Affective Organizational Commitment. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(2), 193–205.

Elanain, H. M. A. (2014). Leader-member exchange and intent to turnover: Testing a mediated-effects model in a high turnover work environment. Management Research Review, 37(2), 110–129.

Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. N. (2010). Differentiated Leader-Member Exchanges: The Buffering Role of Justice Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(6), 1104–1120.

Estiri, M., Amiri, N. S., Khajeheian, D., & Rayej, H. (2018). Leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior in hospitality industry: a study on effect of gender. Eurasian Business Review, 8(3), 267–284.

Garg, S., & Dhar, R. L. (2014). Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management Effects of stress , LMX and perceived organizational support on service quality : Mediating effects of organizational commitment. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 21, 64–75.

Hughes, L. W., Avey, J. B., & Nixon, D. R. (2010). Relationships between leadership and followers’ quitting intentions and job search behaviors. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 17(4), 351–362.

Jiang, L., & Lavaysse, L. M. (2018). Cognitive and Affective Job Insecurity: A Meta-Analysis and a Primary Study. Journal of Management, 44(6), 2307–2342.

Jones, P., & Comfort, D. (2020). The COVID-19 crisis and sustainability in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(10), 3037–3050.

Joo, B. B. (2010). Organizational Commitment for Knowledge Workers : The Roles of Perceived Organizational Learning Culture , Leader – Member Exchange Quality , and Turnover Intention. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21(1), 69–85.

Kim, P. B. C., Poulston, J., & Sankaran, A. C. (2017). An Examination of Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Agreement Between Employees and Their Supervisors and its Influence on Work Outcomes. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 26(3), 238–258.

Kopelman, R. E., Rovenpor, J. L., & Millsap, R. E. (1992). Rationale and construct validity evidence for the job search behavior index: Because intentions (and new year’s resolutions) often come to naught. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40(3), 269–287.

Kurniawan, D. (2020). Hotels Closed So 1.642, Entrepreneurs Are Dizzy Want Any More Strategies To Increase Occupancy. 1–3.

Lowe, T. S. (2018). Perceived Job and Labor Market Insecurity in the United States: An Assessment of Workers’ Attitudes From 2002 to 2014. Work and Occupations, 45(3), 313–345.

Maranatha, U. K. (2017). Leader-member exchanges as a mediator of the effect of job satisfaction on affective organizational commitment : An empirical test Leader-Member Exchanges as a Mediator of the Effect of Job Satisfaction on Affective Organizational Commitment : An Empirica. January 2012.

McFarland, L. A., Reeves, S., Porr, W. B., & Ployhart, R. E. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on job search behavior: An event transition perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105(11), 1207–1217.

Morrow, P. C. (2011). Managing organizational commitment: Insights from longitudinal research. In Journal of Vocational Behavior (Vol. 79, Issue 1, pp. 18–35). Elsevier Inc.

Mowday, R. T., & Steers, R. M. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14(1), 224–247.

Nathan, P. E., Barlow, D. H., Reisberg, D., Zelazo, P. D., Friedman, H. S., & Adams, K. M. (2015). Oxford Handbooks Online Oxford Library of Psychology Oxford Library of Psychology Area Editors : Clinical Psychology Oxford Library of Psychology. August 2016, 1–2.

Peachey, J. W., Burton, L. J., & Wells, J. E. (2014). Examining the influence of transformational leadership, organizational commitment, job embeddedness, and job search behaviors on turnover intentions in intercollegiate athletics. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 35(8), 740–755.

Reisel, W., Probst, T., Chia, S. L., Maloles, C., & König, C. (2010). The effects of job insecurity on job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, deviant behavior, and negative emotions of employees. International Studies of Management and Organization, 40(1), 74–91.

Shoss, M. K. (2017). Job Insecurity: An Integrative Review and Agenda for Future Research. Journal of Management, 43(6), 1911–1939.

Slack, F., Orife, J., & Anderson, F. (2010). Effects of Commitment to Corporate Vision on Employee Satisfaction with Their Organization: An Empirical Study in the United States. International Journal of Management, 27(3), 421.

Staufenbiel, T., & König, C. J. (2010). A model for the effects of job insecurity on performance, turnover intention, and absenteeism. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(1), 101–117.

Staufenbiel, T., Osnabrück, D.-, König, C. J., & Saarlandes, U. (2011). An Evaluation of Borg ’ s Cognitive and Affective Job I nsecurity Scales. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(20), 1–7.

Sun, H., Sik, Y., & Hyun, H. (2021). COVID-19 : The effects of job insecurity on the job engagement and turnover intent of deluxe hotel employees and the moderating role of generational characteristics. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92(June 2020).

Tanrıverdi, H. (2008). Workers’ Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Mediator Variable Relationships of Organizational Commitment Factors. Business, 14(1), 152–164.

Van Hooft, E. A. J., Born, M. P., Taris, T. W., & Flier, H. van der. (2005). Predictors and outcomes of job search behavior : The moderating e V ects of gender and family situation ଝ. 67, 133–152.

van Hoye, G. (2014). Job-search behavior as a multidimensional construct: A review of different job-search behaviors and sources. The Oxford Handbook of Job Loss and Job Search, April 2018, 259–274.

Vujičić, D., Jovičić, A., Lalić, D., Gagić, S., & Cvejanov, A. (2015). The relation between job insecurity, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees in the tourism sector in Novi Sad. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 36(4), 633–652.

Wang, P. Q., Kim, P. B. C., & Milne, S. (2017). Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) and Its Work Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Gender. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 26(2), 125–143.

Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., Bommer, W. H., & Tetrick, L. E. (2002). The role of fair treatment and rewards in perceptions of organizational support and leader-member exchange. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 590–598.

Wong, A. K. F., Kim, S. (Sam), Kim, J., & Han, H. (2021). How the COVID-19 pandemic affected hotel Employee stress: Employee perceptions of occupational stressors and their consequences. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 93(June 2020), 102798.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Narendra Ikhwan Arif Rianto, E. S. Pusparini

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Program Studi Di luar Kampus Utama (PSDKU) Universitas Padjadjaran  & Research Synergy Press

Tourism and Sustainable Development Review (TSDR)

Mailing Address: 
Program Studi Di luar Kampus Utama (PSDKU) Universitas Padjadjaran
Dsn. Sukamanah Ds. Cintaratu  
Kec. Parigi 
Kab. Pangandaran (46393) - Indonesia. 

Mailing Address: 
Research Synergy Press
Jalan Nyaman no 31 
Komplek Sinergi Antapani 
Bandung 40291 - Indonesia.


The Tourism and Sustainable Development Review (TSDR) is indexed by:
Panduan Google Scholar – LPPM Universitas Stikubank SemarangMengenal Crossref (Cross Reference)Current Indexing | Jurnal Teknologi Informasi dan Pendidikan
 DOAJ (@DOAJplus) / Twitter

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.